This operation consists in extracting the juice of the grapes by separating the skin and the pulp to retain all of the fruitiness.
Naturally sweet wine
The principle :
- Sweet and syrupy wines are naturally sweet because the grapes are harvested when over ripe. The clusters therefore have a very high concentration of sugar thanks to the sun and possibly the presence of noble rot (botrytis).
Settling precedes fermentation. It allows the biggest solid elements to settle at the bottom of the vat. It is a natural phenomenon but can be speeded up by cold temperatures or adding enzymes.
Oxygen triggers the alcoholic fermentation of must. Sugar is transformed into alcohol and aromas are released by the yeast more slowly than for red wines. Temperatures must be controlled for these processes to take place (18°C) and for subtle aromas to be released over time. When the must with its high sugar content reaches 14 to 14.5° alcohol, the yeasts die and fermentation ceases naturally.
Maturation is an important phase during which a certain number of components in the wine will combine to give a richer beverage that is more pleasing to drink and also more suited to cellaring in some cases. The sugar content of wines that are naturally sweet varies. If the wine has up to 40 g in weight of sugar per litre it is called "moelleux" (sweet) and if it has over 40 g in weight of sugar per litre of wine it falls in to the "liquoreux" (syrupy) category.
At the end of the maturation phase, the wine is bottled in very strict conditions of hygiene. It may be filtered beforehand.